• 1. Attracting
  • 2. Selecting
  • 3. Equipping
  • 4. Quality
  • 5. Certifying & hiring
  • 6. Supporting

Attracting

Evidence on attraction includes identifying the motivations prospective teachers have to enrol in ITP programmes, mapping among these motivational factors the best predictors of a successful university graduate, an effective teacher and persistence in the profession.

Literature highlights

  • Guarino et al. (2006[1]) conducted a review of studies that consistently found that cross-sectional variation in salary was associated with teacher recruitment and retention. Yet, teachers’ salaries are still lower than salaries of other professionals. Teachers’ actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 81% to 96% of earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries (OECD, 2018[2]).
  • Although some findings indicate that teachers’ salaries are positively associated with teacher recruitment and retention, salary alone is insufficient to adjust the society’s and teachers’ perceptions, and needs to be considered in relation to a range of other reward structures (Berry, Eckert and Bauries, 2012[3]; Watt et al., 2012[4]). For example, large-scale studies and teacher testimonies suggest that working conditions are far more important than bonuses in persuading teachers to stay or leave their classrooms (Berry, Eckert and Bauries, 2012[3]).
  • According to TALIS (OECD, 2014[5]), more than 9 out of 10 teachers are satisfied with their jobs and nearly eight in ten would choose the teaching profession again. But fewer than one in three teachers believe teaching is a valued profession in society. These results have obvious implications with regard to the attractiveness of the teaching profession (OECD, 2014).
  • There is a substantial amount of research on what motivates individuals to study teaching. Borrowing from incentive theory, teacher motivations were initially classified as intrinsic, extrinsic or altruistic (Brookhart and Freeman, 1992[1]). Subsequent classification is based on expectancy-value theory, which espouses that values and ability beliefs (or expectancies of success) are the most important motivations predicting academic choices and behaviours (König and Rothland, 2012[7]; Watt et al., 2012[4]).
  • Results of a study conducted in Australia, Germany, Norway and the United States by (Richardson and Watt, 2014[8]), indicated that social utility value – i.e. an individual’s desire to make a social contribution, enhance social equality, work with children and shape their lives – and perceived teaching ability are the highest rated influence on the choice of a teaching career. These are followed by prior teaching and learning experiences and personal utility value, i.e. an individual’s desire to spend time with the family, and have job security and job transferability. Similar results were found in a study of teachers in Norway and Sweden (Flores and Niklasson, 2014[9]).
References

Berry, B., J. Eckert and S. Bauries (2012), Creating Teacher Incentives for School Excellence and Equity, National Education Policy Center, Boulder, United States, http://nepc.colorado.edu. [3]

Brookhart, S. and D. Freeman (1992), “Characteristics of entering teacher candidates”, Review of Educational Research, Vol. 62/1, pp. 37-60, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.3102/00346543062001037 (accessed on 30 January 2019). [6]

Flores, M. and L. Niklasson (2014), “Why do student teachers enrol for a teaching degree? A study of teacher recruitment in Portugal and Sweden”, Journal of Education for Teaching, Vol. 40/4, pp. 328-343, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02607476.2014.929883. [9]

Guarino, C., L. Santibañez and G. Daley (2006), “Teacher recruitment and retention: A review of the recent empirical literature”, Review of Educational Research, Vol. 76/2, pp. 173-208, http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543076002173. [1]

König, J. and M. Rothland (2012), “Motivations for choosing teaching as a career: effects on general pedagogical knowledge during initial teacher education”, Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 40/3, pp. 289-315, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1359866X.2012.700045. [7]

OECD (2018), Education at a Glance 2018: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag-2018-en. [2]

OECD (2014), TALIS 2013 Results: An International Perspective on Teaching and Learning, TALIS, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264196261-en. [5]

Richardson, P. and H. Watt (2014), “Why people choose teaching as a career: An expectancy-value approach to understanding teacher motivation”, in Richardson, P., S. Karabenick and H. Watt (eds.), Teacher Motivation: Theory and Practice, Routledge, http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203119273-8. [8]

Watt, H. et al. (2012), “Motivations for choosing teaching as a career: An international comparison using the FIT-Choice scale”, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 28/6, pp. 791-805, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.TATE.2012.03.003. [4]

Selecting

Evidence on selecting revolves around how training providers typically select the most suitable candidates for ITP programmes and which selection methods and criteria are most strongly correlated with future teacher performance.

Literature highlights

  • To become an effective teacher they need to possess a certain set of characteristics that can be identified before they enter teaching: a high overall level of literacy and numeracy, strong interpersonal and communications skills, a willingness to learn, and the motivation to teach (Barber and Mourshed, 2007[10]).
  • In most OECD and partner countries, completion of upper secondary education as the minimum requirement for entry into initial teacher education (OECD, 2014[5]). In 19 of the 32 countries, prospective lower secondary teachers are selected based on their grade point average from secondary schools.
  • In a survey of 23 countries (OECD, 2014[5]), in addition to diploma requirements, selective criteria were used to enter and/or progress in initial teacher education. In particular, nine countries used interviews, five reported that candidates need to take standardised tests, nine used competitive exams, while 18 combined several criteria.
  • Research on the predictive value of academic and other initial teacher education (ITE) selection criteria – such as essay writing, interviews, reference letters, psychometric tests and standardised test results – on teacher quality is relatively scarce and shows mixed results (Byrnes, Kiger and Shechtman, 2003[2]; Jacobowitz, 1994[3]).
  • In effect, an ITE programme may not be highly selective, but may still do an excellent job in preparing teacher candidates (Feuer et al., 2013[4]). For example, the introduction of certification mechanisms, degrees earned or years or substantive features such as opportunities for grounded practices are important for teacher candidates (Darling-Hammond, 2017[5]; Jenset, Klette and Hammerness, 2017[6]).
References

Barber, M. and M. Mourshed (2007), How the World’s Best-Performing Schools Systems Come out on Top?, McKinsey&Company, https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/mckinsey/industries/social%20sector/our%20insights/how%20the%20worlds%20best%20performing%20school%20systems%20come%20out%20on%20top/how_the_world_s_best-performing_school_systems_come_out_on_top.ashx (accessed on 05 March 2018). [1] Byrnes, D., G. Kiger and Z. Shechtman (2003), “Evaluating the use of group interviews to select students into teacher-education programs”, Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 54/2, pp. 163-172, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487102250310.[3] Darling-Hammond, L. (2017), “Teacher education around the world: What can we learn from international practice?”, European Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 40/3, pp. 291-309, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2017.1315399. [6] Feuer, M. et al. (2013), Evaluation of Teacher Preparation Programs: Purposes, Methods, and Policy Options, National Academy of Education, Washington, D.C. [5] Jacobowitz, T. (1994), “Admission to teacher education programs: Goodlad’s sixth postulate”, Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 45/1, pp. 46-52, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487194045001007. [4] Jenset, I., K. Klette and K. Hammerness (2017), “Grounding teacher education in practice around the world: an examination of teacher education coursework in teacher education programs in Finland, Norway, and the United States”, Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 69/2, pp. 184-197, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487117728248. [7] OECD (2014), TALIS 2013 Results: An International Perspective on Teaching and Learning, TALIS, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264196261-en. [2]

Equipping

Evidence related to equipping teachers explores the professional competences and specialised knowledge that ITP programmes need to equip future teachers with. These competences and knowledge should enable teachers to foster 21stcentury skills, keep up with technological change and take on new responsibilities including collaborating with colleagues, establishing partnerships, and learning to become enquiring and adaptive practitioners.

Literature highlights

  • There is growing research that intend to explain student achievement by teacher characteristics. Such studies typically model teachers’ professional competence as a multi-dimensional construct that includes different types of resources, as well as skills needed for mediating between such resources and instructional processes such as decision making skills (Weinert, 2001[16]; Baumert et al., 2010[17]; Blömeke, Gustafsson and Shavelson, 2015[18]).
  • One of the most well-known typology of teachers’ knowledge originates in Shulman’s seminal work (Shulman, 1987[7])and distinguishes between 1) content knowledge – teachers’ knowledge about their subject matter; 2) pedagogical content knowledge – knowledge, which integrates the content knowledge of a specific subject and the pedagogical knowledge for teaching that particular subject; and 3) general pedagogical knowledge – knowledge of creating and facilitating an effective learning environment independent of the subject matter(Sonmark et al., 2017[8]; Shulman, 1987[7]).
  • A positive relationship has been found between both teachers’ content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge, and student achievement (Baumert et al., 2010[17]; Hill, Rowan and Ball, 2005[21]). Moreover, it has been shown that teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge has more of an impact on student achievement than content knowledge alone, and only pedagogical content knowledge (in comparison to content knowledge) seems to have an impact on the quality of instruction (Baumert et al., 2010[17]). A higher level of general pedagogical knowledge is related to higher quality of instruction (Voss, Kunter and Baumert, 2011[22]).
  • Empirical research investigating how teacher knowledge is used in decision-making suggests that in order to make informed pedagogical decisions, teachers must be able to analyse and evaluate specific learning episodes (Baumert et al., 2010[17]; Blömeke, Gustafsson and Shavelson, 2015[18]). Teachers’ ability to identify classroom situations that are decisive for instructional practice is often referred to as “noticing” or “perception”. Once, the specific situation is identified, teachers need to process and interpret the events to which their attention is directed, which is often referred to as “reasoning” (Seidel et al., 2011[23]).
  • To acquire skills that allow teachers to make situation-based professional judgements, gaining practical teaching experience in a classroom is critical. A variety of studies have found that clinical teacher training in ITP can help teacher candidates to achieve balance between theoretical knowledge and experiential learning (Darling-Hammond, 2014[24];NCATE, 2010[25]; Ronfeldt and Reininger, 2012[26]; Sahlberg, Munn and Furlong, 2012[27]). Ronfeldt & Reininger (2012[26])have found that quality of teaching practice has more significant and positive effects, compared to duration.
References

Baumert, J. et al. (2010), “Teachers’ mathematical knowledge, cognitive activation in the classroom, and student progress”, American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 47/1, pp. 133-180, http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0002831209345157. [2] Blömeke, S., J. Gustafsson and R. Shavelson (2015), “Beyond dichotomies: Competence viewed as a continuum”, Zeitschrift für Psychologie, Vol. 223/1, pp. 3-13, http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/2151-2604/a000194. [3] Darling-Hammond, L. (2014), “Strengthening clinical preparation: the holy grail of teacher education”, Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 89/4, pp. 547-561, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0161956x.2014.939009. [9] Hill, H., B. Rowan and D. Ball (2005), “Effects of teachers’ mathematical knowledge for teaching on student achievement”, American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 42/2, pp. 371-406, http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00028312042002371. [6] NCATE (2010), Transforming Teacher Education through Clinical Practice: A National Strategy to Prepare Effective Teachers. Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Clinical Preparation and Partnerships for Improved Student Learning., http://www.ncate.org (accessed on 01 February 2019). [10] Ronfeldt, M. and M. Reininger (2012), “More or better student teaching?”, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 28/8, pp. 1091-1106, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2012.06.003. [11] Sahlberg, P., P. Munn and J. Furlong (2012), Report of the International Review Panel on the Structure of Initial Teacher Education Provision in Ireland, Department of Education and Skills, Ireland, http://hea.ie/assets/uploads/2017/05/Review-of-Structure-of-Teacher-Education.pdf (accessed on 01 February 2019). [12] Seidel, T. et al. (2011), “Teacher learning from analysis of videotaped classroom situations: Does it make a difference whether teachers observe their own teaching or that of others?”, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 27/2, pp. 259-267, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2010.08.009. [8] Shulman, L. (1987), “Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform”, Harvard Educational Review, Vol. 57/1, pp. 1-23, http://dx.doi.org/10.17763/haer.57.1.j463w79r56455411. [4] Sonmark, K. et al. (2017), “Understanding teachers’ pedagogical knowledge: report on an international pilot study”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 159, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/43332ebd-en. [5] Voss, T., M. Kunter and J. Baumert (2011), “Assessing teacher candidates’ general pedagogical/psychological knowledge: Test construction and validation.”, Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 103/4, pp. 952-969, http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0025125. [7] Weinert, F. (2001), “Concept of competence: A conceptual clarification”, in Rychen, D. and L. Salganik (eds.), Defining and Selecting Key Competencies, Hogrefe & Huber Publishers, Ashland, OH, US. [1]

Quality

Evidence on the quality of teacher education relates to evaluation and accreditation mechanisms in ITP programmes: the structures put in place, and the different criteria and requirements implemented to secure the quality delivery of these programmes. Research is still scarce, although growing, on one key element of quality ITP: teacher educators.

Literature highlights

  • Quality assurance in higher education has two main, sometimes conflicting purposes: 1) accountability to provide an objective measurement to demonstrate quality, and 2) improvement, i.e. a formative approach to understand how performance can be improved in the future(OECD, 2008[48]). The use of quality assurance methods and setting of standards to ensure the quality and accountability of ITE programmes is relatively new – and on the rise (OECD, 2008[9]).
  • The European Commission (Eurydice, 2006[29])defines evaluation as “the general process of systematic and critical analysis leading to judgements and/or recommendations for improvement regarding the quality of a teacher education institute or programme”. Accreditation is a form of evaluation whereby “an institution or a programme is judged by relevant legislative and professional authorities as having met predetermined standards in order to provide teacher education or training and to award the corresponding qualifications (where they exist)”.
  • In Europe, the Bologna Process and Bergen Communiqué prompted countries to pay closer attention to the quality of initial teacher preparation. Many European countries began reforming the accreditation and evaluation of teacher education following the alignment of national systems in 1999 and the adoption of standards and guidelines for quality assurance in higher education in 2005 (Eurydice, 2006[29]).
  • Studies on quality teacher education suggest that in order to accommodate innovation in accountability processes, quality assurance systems should also focus on processes and continuous improvement, besides outcome measures and ensuring minimal benchmarks (Toon, Jensen and Cooper, 2017[10]; Peck and Davis, 2018[11]).
  • Teacher educators play a key role in ensuring quality education by role modelling practice as they teach prospective teachers (Lunenberg, Korthagen and Swennen, 2007[117]). While an authentic role model needs to reflect new models and emerging evidence on teaching and learning, the extent to which teacher educators adjusted their practices to modern views of learning (e.g. constructivist views) is not clear(Cochran-Smith et al., 2015[28]). Although, some studies suggest that sociocultural perspectives on teacher learning have been widely taken up by teacher educators through practices that involve teacher candidates interacting, negotiating and through that learning from each other, as well as teachers and university supervisors collaborating (Cochran-Smith et al., 2015[13]).
References

Cochran-Smith, M. et al. (2015), “Critiquing teacher preparation research: An overview of the field, part II”, Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 66/2, pp. 109-121, https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487114558268. [6] Eurydice (2006), Quality Assurance in Teacher Education in Europe, Eurydice, European Unit, https://publications.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/a9a4e36c-553a-4484-bd65-5006103fd26c. [2] Lunenberg, M., F. Korthagen and A. Swennen (2007), “The teacher educator as a role model”, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 23/5, pp. 586-601, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.TATE.2006.11.001. [5] OECD (2008), Tertiary Education for the Knowledge Society: Volume 1 and Volume 2, OECD Reviews of Tertiary Education, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264046535-en  [1] Mandinach, E. and E. Gummer (eds.) (2018), Building Capacity and Commitment for Data Use in Teacher Education Programs, Routledge. [4] Toon, D., B. Jensen and S. Cooper (2017), Teaching Our Teachers: a Better Way – Continuous Improvement in Teacher Preparation, Learning First, Melbourne, http://www.learningfirst.com (accessed on 04 October 2018). [3]

Certifying & selecting

Evidence related to teacher certification studies teachers’ qualification requirements, the impact of different forms and practices of certifying teachers, while hiring refers to the methods and criteria for teacher selection including predictors of future teaching performance and principles for effective teacher selection processes.

Literature highlights

  • Certification normally takes place at the end of a course of initial teacher preparation programmes. The basic purpose of certification is to proclaim the candidate’s successful or satisfactory completion of ITP (according to the training provider), and accordingly, it is usually defined in terms of mastery of course content (Hobson, 2010).
  • The two most wide spread initial teacher education models are concurrent programmes, which provide pedagogical training and practicum at the same time as courses in subject matter, and consecutive models, in which pedagogical and practical training follow courses in subject matter (OECD, 2014[102]). At the pre-primary and primary levels teacher education follows a concurrent model in most OECD and partner countries. Prospective lower and upper secondary teachers have the choice between concurrent and consecutive programmes in around one third of countries. In lower secondary teacher education (general subjects), in 13 of the 36 countries with available data, programmes are concurrent, while in upper secondary teacher education (general subjects), 13 countries out of 36 offer consecutive models (OECD, 2014[15]).
  • Some countries like the United Kingdom and the United States are developing certification programmes which offer multiple alternate routes into teaching. Simply defined, alternative certification is a process by which a person is awarded a teaching licence without completing a traditional teacher certification programme. Evidence on alternative certification is not yet robust and show mixed results: some found that it has increased the numbers of minorities and males entering teaching(Zumwalt, 1996[36]), data on retention rates are mixed, with some indicating that those who do stay in teaching tend to migrate away from low SES schools, as do teachers prepared in traditional programmes (Natriello, 1993[37]).
  • The number of countries using professional standards as a basis of teacher certification has increased over the years (Toledo, Révai and Guerriero, 2017[18]). Standards describe what teachers should know and be able to do, including the description of a desirable level of performance (Ingvarson, 2002[39]). Some report that standards for teachers can lead to better student outcomes and can help identify effective teaching practice when used for certification purposes (Darling-Hammond, 2000[40]; Darling-Hammond, Jaquith and Hamilton, 2012[41];Kleinhenz and Ingvarson, 2007[42]). At the same time, there is concern that professional standards may restrain teachers’ practice or that their use may actually enlarge learning gaps between students if these are not accompanied with the necessary resources to help teachers in socially disadvantaged contexts (Muller, 2004[43]; Caena, 2011[44]).
  • According to Winter (1995[45]), hiring teachers includes three tasks: 1) identifying reliable and valid predictors of future job performance; 2) rating job candidates on these predictors; and 3) selecting candidates with the highest ratings to fill vacant positions. A transparent recruitment procedure not only ensures that the best candidates are selected, but also signals the professional status of the teaching profession. However, teacher hiring practices largely depend on the educational system; in centralised systems, teachers are allocated to schools based on central decisions, while decentralised systems devolve hiring entirely to schools.
References

Caena, F. (2011), Literature Review Teachers’ Core Competences: Requirements and Development, European Commission, Brussels, http://ec.europa.eu/assets/eac/education/experts-groups/2011-2013/teacher/teacher-competences_en.pdf (accessed on 01 February 2019). [11] Darling-Hammond, L. (2000), “Teacher quality and student achievement: A review of state policy evidence”, Education Policy Analysis Archives, Vol. 8/1, pp. 1-44, http://dx.doi.org/10.14507/epaa.v8n1.2000. [7] Darling-Hammond, L., A. Jaquith and M. Hamilton (2012), Creating a Comprehensive System for Evaluating and Supporting Effective Teaching, https://edpolicy.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/creating-comprehensive-system-evaluating-and-supporting-effective-teaching.pdf (accessed on 29 May 2018). [8] Hobson, A. et al. (2010), “International Approaches to Teacher Selection and Recruitment”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 47, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kmbphhh6qmx-en. [1] Ingvarson, L. (2002), Development of a national standards framework for the teaching profession, Australian Council for Educational Research Publishing, http://research.acer.edu.au/teaching_standards (accessed on 05 January 2018). [6] Kleinhenz, E. and L. Ingvarson (2007), Standards for Teaching – Theoretical Underpinnings and Applications, New Zealand Teachers Council, https://educationcouncil.org.nz/sites/default/files/Standards%20for%20Teaching%20-%20Theoretical%20Underpinnings%20and%20Applications%20-%202007.pdf (accessed on 30 January 2018). [9] Muller, C. (2004), “Standards and equity”, Journal of the Learning Sciences, Vol. 13/2, pp. 237-242, http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327809jls1302_6. [10] Natriello, G. (1993), Challenges to an alternative route for teacher education, University of Chicago Press. [4] OECD (2014), Education at a Glance 2014: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag-2014-en. [2] Toledo, D., N. Révai and S. Guerriero (2017), “Teacher professionalism and knowledge in qualifications frameworks and professional standards”, in Guerriero, S. (ed.), Pedagogical Knowledge and the Changing Nature of the Teaching Profession, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264270695-5-en. [5] Winter, P. (1995), “Facts and fiction about teacher selection: insights from current research findings”, The High School Journal, Vol. 79/1, pp. 21-24, http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/40364739. [12] Zumwalt, K. (1996), “Simple Answers: Alternative Teacher Certification”, Educational Researcher, pp. 40-42. [3]

Supporting

Evidence on supporting teachers explores various definitions of “induction” and the impact of  induction programmes on teacher retention and job satisfaction. It includes access to programmes, mentoring, and other practices supporting new teachers.

Literature highlights

  • In broad terms, induction refers to processes by which beginning teachers are supported and introduced into the teaching profession after completing a programme of initial teacher education (European Commission, 2010[47]). The European Trade Union Committee for Education (ETUCE, 2008[48])advocates that an induction phase of at least one year should be both a right and an obligation for early career teachers, and should involve systematic guidance and personnel, social and professional support.
  • There are significant differences in nearly all aspects of the organisation, planning, forms of support for early career teachers and assessment across countries (European Commission, 2015[20]). Some countries do not provide induction programmes, while other countries have induction initiatives that are more or less centralised with varying roles of teacher training institutions.
  • Darling-Hammond et al. (2009[50])showed that high achieving countries in PISA and TIMSS studies commonly have extensive opportunities for both formal and informal in-service development. Also, induction programmes are significantly related to enhancing teachers’ job satisfaction and professional well-being (Hiltula et al., 2012[51]). A growing number of research suggests that early support to novice teachers can have a positive effect throughout a teacher’s career (Paniagua and Sánchez-Martí, 2018[21]).
  • Some research describes new teachers’ challenges as “Reality shock” or “Praxis shock” (European Commission, 2010[47]; Dicke et al., 2015[53]). Novice teachers are often left alone and experience a “sink or swim” period in their classrooms during the first years. The first years in the profession are crucial because teachers can develop practical knowledge about classroom practice and about their students, as well as their role in the school community. This phase is considered to be an “intermediating link” between the initial teacher education and professional development of teachers (Tynjälä, Stenström and Saarnivaara, 2012[54]).
  • According to TALIS, there is a great variation between countries in terms of access to induction programmes (OECD, 2014[5]). On average across participating countries, less than half of teachers (44%) work in schools where principals report the existence of formal induction programmes for all new teachers, and 22% work in schools where induction programmes are accessible only for teachers new to teaching. 77% of teachers work in schools with informal induction programmes. Lastly, 86% of teachers work in schools where school principals report the availability of general and/or administrative introduction programmes.
  • Mentoring is one of the most important methods to support beginning teachers. In TALIS, mentoring is defined as “a support structure in schools where more-experience teachers support less-experienced teachers”. On average across TALIS countries, 25% of lower secondary education teachers’ work in schools where principals report that they have mentoring programme for all teachers in the school(OECD, 2014[5]).
  • Providing formal mentoring with a strong focus on instruction can contribute to positive teacher outcomes, especially when programmes have more stringent requirements for mentor selection, provide more training and continuous support, and hold mentors accountable (Wechsler et al., 2010[55]). In addition, having a mentor from the teacher’s subject area and having common planning or collaboration time with other teachers in the teacher’s subject area are more effective at reducing turnover during the first years of teaching (Ingersoll, 2012[56]).
References

Darling-Hammond, L. et al. (2009), Professional Learning in the Learning Profession A Status Report on Teacher Development in the US and Abroad, National Staff Development Council and School Redesign Network, Stanford, http://dx.doi.org/citeulike-article-id:9303468. [4] Dicke, T. et al. (2015), “Reducing reality shock: The effects of classroom management skills training on beginning teachers”, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 48, pp. 1-12, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.TATE.2015.01.013.[7] ETUCE (2008), Teacher Education in Europe. An ETUCE Policy Paper, https://www.csee-etuce.org/images/attachments/ETUCE_PolicyPaper_en.pdf (accessed on 01 February 2019). [2] European Commission (2015), The Teaching Profession in Europe: Practices, Perceptions, and Policies, https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/teaching-profession-europe-practices-perceptions-and-policies_en (accessed on 31 January 2019). [3] European Commission (2010), Developing Coherent and System-wide Induction Programmes for Beginning Teachers: A Handbook for Policymakers, http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/repository/education/policy/school/doc/handbook0410_en.pdf (accessed on 28 June 2018). [1] Hiltula, A. et al. (2012), “Individual and social meanings of mentoring”, in Heikkinen, H., P. Tynjälä and H. Jokinen (eds.), Peer-Group Mentoring for Teacher Development, Routledge, Milton Park. [5] Ingersoll, R. (2012), “Beginning teacher induction what the data tell us”, Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 93/8, pp. 47-51, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003172171209300811. [11] OECD (2014), TALIS 2013 Results: An International Perspective on Teaching and Learning, TALIS, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264196261-en. [9] Paniagua, A. and A. Sánchez-Martí (2018), “Early Career Teachers: Pioneers Triggering Innovation or Compliant Professionals?”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 190, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/4a7043f9-en. [6] Tynjälä, P., M. Stenström and M. Saarnivaara (eds.) (2012), Transitions and Transformations in Learning and Education, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-2312-2. [8] Wechsler, M. et al. (2010), Examining the Effects of New Teacher Induction, SRI International. [10]