Ted decided to apply for an undergraduate programme in science education. Although other jobs in the sciences offer more competitive salaries and many of his friends left teaching within the first 5 years, he has always wanted to be a teacher.
After obtaining her undergraduate degree, Ayleen applied for an “alternative” initial teacher education programme. She learned about the programme through a recruitment campaign at the campus. She was attracted by the opportunity to develop leadership while making a difference to the lives of those in a low-income school community. She can also earn a full salary and benefits at the same time. After she earns his certificate, she must stay in teaching for 2 years, but then she is free to pursue other endeavours.
Bob has wanted to be a teacher since elementary school, even though teaching isn’t considered a well-paid, high-status job. There is a big teacher shortage in his neighbourhood, and very few teachers of colour.
Like his friends applying for other university courses, Ted submitted his high school transcript, guidance counsellor’s recommendation, teacher evaluation and American College Test (ACT) score.
To pass the first round, Ayleen needed a Bachelor’s degree with a minimum Grade Point Average of 2.50. Ayleen is now waiting for the results of the second-round interview.
Bob intends to apply for a programme which is designed to recruit more male teachers of colour. He can apply directly as he has already earned 45 credits toward a bachelor’s degree.
The ITE programme at Ted’s university comprises 30 credits of education studies, 59 credits of subject studies, and 36 credits of general studies. Education studies cover different domains in educational science including educational psychology, teaching with technologies, and special education. Two semesters of practicum and one semester of student teaching are compulsory. Students are sent out to the local schools partnered with the university.
Ayleen was accepted into the “alternative programme”. Before being allocated to a school, she must attend an 8-week summer training covering teaching methods and regional orientation where she will learn about the school district. From autumn, she will begin teaching while taking some classes at a local university. She will have a mentor teacher and a programme co-ordinator from the programme may also visit her to discuss their progress and challenges.
Bob has been taking night classes at a partner university while teaching full-time at a school. He attends professional development sessions organised for male teachers of colour where he can learn about various instructional approaches and other practices to improve equity and social justice.
Like other universities in his state, Bob’s university is regularly evaluated by the state according to 5 CAEP standards: Content and Pedagogical Knowledge, Clinical Partnerships and Practice, Candidate Quality, Recruitment, and Selectivity, Program Impact, and Provider Quality, Continuous Improvement, and Capacity. His university earned accreditation, but underperforming providers must provide evidence they have met all five standards within the next 2 years.
There is no formal accreditation of alternative programmes, like CAEP, though some states do approve alternative programmes, .
Ted earned a basic license after completing his ITE programme. He will obtain a full license after completing other requirements. To obtain a full license in his state, Ted must have an initial license for at least three years and have completed one-year induction programme with a mentor and at least 50 hours of a mentored period beyond the induction year. He will apply for a position in a school district nearby.
Ayleen earned a temporary license after completing her summer training programme so that she can teach immediately while completing other programme requirements. Once she meets the remaining requirements in her state, which are completing coursework and passing a test on the U.S. constitution, she will receive a basic license. After two years of teaching, she is expected to sit the state’s Provisional Teacher Programme (PTP) test to obtain a full teaching license. She’s looking to travel and find a teaching job interstate, and checking out information on the interstate reciprocity agreement from the National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification (NASDTEC)’s website.
Bob completed all courses and obtained the basic teaching certification in his state. His programme, which aims to recruit more teachers of colour like Bob, provided certification exam practice sessions and support for his teaching application. He got hired by one of local schools partnered with the initiative.
Like new teachers in 28 other states, Ted will participate in an induction programme for 1 year. He was assigned a mentor teacher who regularly observes his lessons and provides feedback.
In Ayleen’s state, there is an induction programme available for all beginning teachers. It is a 2-year compulsory course involving support and assessment of new teachers.
Although Bob knows of some informal teacher networks, he is concerned that there are too few mentors who are teachers of colour.