1. National guidelines and legislation on ITP

Ministry of Education and Research Norway (2006), Kunnskapsløftet – reformen i grunnskole og videregående opplæring [Knowledge Promotion Reform in Primary and Lower Secondary Education], Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research, Oslo, (in Norwegian).

This paper describes the Knowledge Promotion Reform, which was introduced by the Ministry of Education and Research in 2006 for primary and secondary education. The reform focuses on basic skills and knowledge promotion, outcome-based learning, new distribution of teaching and training hours per subject, a new structure of available courses within education programmes, and more autonomy at the local level. The main elements of the reform are:

  • Focus on basic skills: In the subject curricula, five basic skills (reading, oral expression, writing, numeracy and use of digital tools) are integrated to adapt to each subject; the number of lessons in primary school was increased, especially in the first four years, and individualised instruction; and municipalities have to ensure that adapted teaching in Norwegian/Sami language and mathematics is provided, especially those with weak abilities in reading and mathematics.
  • Clear standards for learning: Subject curricula include clear objectives specifying the level of competence expected from students after years 4, 7 and 10 and after each level in upper secondary education and training.
  • A Quality Framework defines the principles for developing optimal learning environments and learning achievements.
  • Municipalities are given more authority for decision-making in methods of instruction, choice of learning materials, development of curricula and organisation of instruction.

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Ministry of Education and Research Norway (2009), “Fact sheet – White paper on teacher education: The teacher – the role and the education (Report to the Storting No 11 (2008-2009)). Principal elements”, Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research, Oslo.

This white paper by the Norwegian Government sets the scene for the new reform of initial teacher education for primary and lower secondary in 2010, which has a stronger emphasis on subject knowledge and teaching skills, quality of studies and research orientation. It also describes the challenges facing primary and lower secondary education and teacher education. In this paper, the Norwegian Government puts forward proposals for action aimed at further improving the school system and teacher education by improving the quality of teacher education; increasing recruitment to the teaching profession and to teacher education; providing closer follow-up of and support to newly qualified teachers; and conducting more R&D relevant for initial training and teacher education.

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Ministry of Education and Research Norway (2010), National Curriculum Regulations for Differentiated Primary and Lower Secondary Teacher Education Programmes for Years 1 – 7 and Years 5 – 10, Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research, Oslo.

Published by the Ministry of Education and Research on 1 March 2010, the Regulations define the National Curriculum for university colleges and universities providing 4-year differentiated primary and lower secondary teacher education programmes for years 1-7 and years 5-10. The Regulations are designed to help ensure a unified national structure in teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary education. The 6-page document defines teachers’ learning outcomes on the basis of the National Qualifications Framework in Norway (i.e. knowledge, skills and competences), and presents a) the structure of primary and lower secondary initial teacher education programmes, in terms of the requirements for specialisation and academic content, compulsory subjects, scope of subjects and teaching practice, and b) how ITE programmes should be structured for each year of study.

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Ministry of Education and Research Norway (2011, updated 2014), National Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning, Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research, Oslo.

Adopted for all levels of education and training in Norway in 2011, the National Qualification Framework for Lifelong Learning (NQF) describes the Norwegian education and training system and its 7 levels of qualifications, from those obtained at the end of lower secondary education to the highest at PhD level, with levels formulated on the basis of what a person knows, can do, and is capable of doing as a result of a learning process.(i.e. in learning outcomes). In October 2013, the Ministry of Education and Research appointed a committee with the mandate of exploring the possibility of placing qualifications acquired outside the formal education system (non-formal qualifications) into the NQF. The committee presented its report to the Minister of Education and Research on 30 April 2015.

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Ministry of Education and Research Norway (2011), National Guidelines for Differentiated Primary and Lower Secondary Teacher Education Programmes for Years 1–7 and Years 5–10. General provisions, Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research, Oslo.

These national guidelines were developed by the National Curriculum Committee in 2009 to supplement the National Curriculum Regulations for Differentiated Teacher Education Programmes for Years 1 – 7 and Years 5 – 10. The 10-page guidelines seek to provide teacher education institution with guidance on how to prepare programme descriptions stipulating academic content, teaching practice, organisation, working methods and assessment methods. The guidelines outlines general responsibilities of teacher education institutions – “to promote the integration of theory and practice training, academic progression, consistent professional orientation and a research basis”. “Subjects, subject didactics, pedagogy and teaching practice must be closely linked, both in contents and in their organisation… and anchored in an active research environment” – and organisation of institutions offering ITE, namely the transfer of all ITE programmes to a 4-year Master’s programme. The document outlines the subjects and contents of ITE programmes, including the requirements of the organisation of the teaching practicum and “partner school agreements”, thesis component and the definition of “research base” at the programme and school levels. Universities are responsible for deciding which “subjects are relevant for work in schools” and for “showing students varied working methods and formative and summative evalution”. At the end of the document, it is noted that the intention of the Committee is to revise these national guidelines as teacher education institutions implement them. From 2014, the the National Council for Teacher Education is responsible for developing and updating national guidelines for all ITE programmes. English versions of some of the guidelines can be found here.

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Ministry of Education and Research Norway, Strategy (2014) Strategi Lærerløftet – På lag for kunnskapsskolen [Promotion of the Status and Quality of Teachers], Ministry of Education and Research, Oslo (in Norwegian).

This paper describes the main elements of the Norwegian Ministry of Education’s programme introduced in 2014 to Improve the Status and Quality of Teachers, which are:

  • All teachers must specialise in mathematics, English and Norwegian.
  • Teachers must complete a 5-year Master’s degree
  • Students require a higher mark in mathematics to go into teaching.
  • Large investment in continuing education for teachers.
  • Piloting new career paths for teachers.
  • Building up the skills of counties, municipalities and head teachers in order to create a knowledge-rich education system.
  • Building teams and strong subject-based communities within schools.

A summary of this document is available in English.

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Ministry of Education and Research Norway, White Paper Meld. St. 21 (2016 – 2017) Melding til Stortinget, Lærelyst – tidlig innsats og kvalitet i skolen [Message to the Storting, Teacher Education – Early Efforts and Quality in Education], (in Norwegian).

This paper describes the Government’s continued comprehensive efforts to raise teachers’ competence and modernise the curricula in Norway – and progress made since the 2002 Knowledge Promotion Reform, which was the first major education policy reform in Norway with quality development as its main pillar. It articulates the Government’s desire to reduce the difference in quality between and within schools by defining clear requirements and expectations of local authorities, while ensuring the autonomy to find solutions suited to local needs – and also allowing teachers and school manager’s ample opportunity to build and further develop professional communities. The paper describes the main elements of the reform and government recommendations in pursuit of these reforms:

  • A more stringent requirement for early intervention. Among other things, students who lag behind shall be offered intensive tuition in reading, writing and numeracy in years 1–4.
  • A new competence development model that gives teachers, school managers, schools and municipalities greater freedom of action.
  • Close follow-up of municipalities that score below the lower quality limit in key areas of education and training.
  • Appointment of a committee tasked with ensuring that the Education Act fulfils the goals and principles for primary and secondary education, and that local school authorities have sufficient freedom of action.
  • More stringent requirements as regards formal qualifications in school management and special education.

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Ministry of Education and Research Norway (2017), Teacher Education 2025. National Strategy for Quality and Co-operation in Teacher Education, Ministry of Education and Research, Oslo.

The aim of this national strategy is to “lay the basis for attractive teacher education programmes of high quality in Norway… and to have academically strong and well organised teacher education providers… In line with White Paper No. 16 (2016–2017) Quality Culture in Higher Education, the strategy expresses an ambition for less micromanagement by central government, focusing instead on setting out clear expectations and establishing relationships of trust”. The paper outlines the overarching goals for the year 2025 – 1) academically challenging and rewarding study programmes, 2) academically strong and well organised teacher education providers, 3) knowledge-based and involved partners in the kindergarten and school sectors, 4) and stable and mutually beneficial cooperation between teacher education institutions, the kindergarten sector and the school sector.  It highlights recent development and challenges in the area of teacher education reform, such as relevance of professional practice, and need to strengthen research basis and cross-disciplinary cooperation. The strategy concludes by presenting seven priority areas and measures, including better practice training and R&D cooperation through teacher education schools and teacher education kindergartens; high standards and cross-disciplinary cooperation among academic staff at the teacher education institutions; arenas for cooperation and quality development; research and development; and implementing and evaluating the strategy.

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Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education (NOKUT) (2015),  Centre for Professional Learning in Teacher Education (ProTed). Mid-term evaluation – Centre of Excellence in Higher Education, NOKUT, Oslo.

This report is the mid-term evaluation of the first Norwegian Centre of Excellence in Higher Education (SFU), Centre for Professional Learning in Teacher Education (Pro-Ted), based at the University of Oslo and The Arctic University of Norway (UiT). Chapter 1 describes the structure of the report and the SFU scheme, and introduces the Norwegian teacher education and ProTed. Chapter 2 describes the composition of the Expert Committee and how the evaluation was conducted. The bulk of the report (Chapter 3) provides a discussion and analysis of the mandate and the criteria by the Expert Committee, followed by an evaluation of ProTed’s success as an SFU after three and a half years. Based on discussion in Chapter 3, the NOKUT Board makes the final decision on prolongation of ProTed’s SFU status (Chapter 4).

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2. Policy and research on ITP

Abusland, Borghild, D. (2011), New Teacher Education in Norway, Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research, Stavanger.

This presentation by the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research looks at the 2011 teacher education reform in three sections: 1) the reform background and objectives; 2) the legislation and national regulations of teacher education; 3) the structure, content and intended learning outcomes of the new teacher education. The main objective of the reform is to enhance the quality and relevance of initial teacher education –  through solid subject knowledge and teaching skills tailored to students’ age group –  and to enhance the quality of professional teaching practice. It introduced in 2010 new 4-year programmes for primary and lower secondary school teachers. The presentation also provides examples of the challenges in reform implementation.

Afdal, H. and M. Nerland (2012), “Does teacher education matter? An analysis of relations to knowledge among Norwegian and Finnish novice teachers”, Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 58. No. 3, pp. 281-299.

This article compares relations to knowledge among novice teachers educated in a research-based programme in Finland and in a general professional programme in Norway. The curricula of the two programmes differ in distinct ways with regard to selection and organisation of knowledge. Using Bernstein’s concepts of knowledge discourses, classification and framing, the authors explore if and how these differences play out in the relations to knowledge of the two groups of teachers through in-depth interviews with 12 teachers. While there are many similarities on the surface, a closer examination of the teachers’ use of professional language revealed that Finnish teachers use more specialised language to frame their conceptions, and their knowledge relations reflected a stronger classification and framing than those of the Norwegian teachers. The authors discuss how these differences may be related to their educational programmes, and the possible implications for the teachers’ professional identities.

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Christophersen, K. et al. (2016), “Teacher education programmes and their contribution to student teacher efficacy in classroom management and pupil engagement”, Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 60, No. 2, pp. 240-254.

This study focuses on how different educational programmes contribute to teacher candidates’ efficacy regarding classroom management and their abilities to provide learning opportunities and good classroom outcomes. Data were gathered and analysed via structural equation modelling from 491 teacher candidates attending different teacher education programmes in Norway. The results revealed that: 1) problem behaviour in the classroom has a negative effect on student teacher efficacy; 2) students’ perceptions of the integration of pedagogic knowledge and practice supports students’ efficacy beliefs; 3) support from supervisors contributes positively to student teachers’ efficacy beliefs; 4) student teachers in university college programmes for primary school teaching report higher teacher efficacy than students in university programmes for secondary school teaching.

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Dijana Tiplic, C. (2015), “Antecedents of Norwegian beginning teachers turnover intentions”, Cambridge Journal of Education, Vol. 45, No. 4, pp. 451-474.

This study explores several individual, organisational and contextual factors that may affect attrition of teachers in their first years of teaching using a sample of 227 new teachers (69% female and 31% male) from 133 schools in Norway. The results show four important antecedents of beginning teachers’ turnover intentions: collective teacher efficacy, teacher–principal trust, role conflict, and affective commitment. The findings suggest that organisational and contextual factors – and not necessarily individual competence perceptions – have a significant impact on beginning teachers’ turnover intentions. Also the findings suggest that beginning teachers should be studied separately from more experienced teachers. Implications for school leadership are also discussed.

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Fiva, T. and Simonsen, B. (2016), Country Background Report. OECD Initial Teacher Preparation Study. Norway, Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research, Oslo.

This is a self-evaluation report providing background information for the team of experts visiting Norway as part of the OECD Initial Teacher Preparation study. It outlines issues and challenges along the six stages of the OECD Teacher Education pathway: attracting candidates into initial teacher education (ITE), selection into ITE programmes, what teacher candidates need to know and do, ensuring quality delivery of ITE programmes, teacher certification and hiring, and support for new teachers.

Førland Standal, Ø., K. Mordal Moen and V. Fusche Moe (2014), “Theory and practice in the context of practicum: the perspectives of Norwegian physical education student teachers”, European Physical Education Review, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 165-178.

The purpose of this study was to improve understanding about the relationship between theory and practice in the context of the practicum in physical education teacher education. Previous studies have found that physical education candidate teachers value the practicum over other parts of the initial teacher education programme – and that they experience a gap between theory and practice. Data were collected through focus group interviews with physical education teacher education students from  three different university colleges in Norway. The findings indicate that candidate teachers’ experience of theory and practice is fragmented, but that they have a differentiated understanding of what theory is. The analysis also suggests that, for these students, university tutors occupy a rather distant role in the practicum: it is mostly left to the students to connect theory and practice.

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Hammerness, K. (2013), “Examining features of teacher education in Norway”, Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 57, No. 4, pp. 400-419.

Drawing upon recent research in the United States, this paper proposes three key elements unpinning powerful teacher education programmes: vision, coherence and opportunities to learn that are grounded in teaching practice. The author uses these features as a lens to examine initial teacher education programmes (ITE) in Norway. The analysis reveals several challenges for Norwegian ITE programmes, such as a lack of shared vision among faculties responsible for teaching subject content and those teaching pedagogy, as well as few opportunities for student teachers to learn in the context of practice. Implications for strengthening ITE programmes are discussed.

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Hill, M. and M. Haigh (2012), “Creating a culture of research in teacher education: Learning research within communities of practice”, Studies in Higher Education, Vol. 37, No. 8, pp. 971-988.

In some international contexts, for example in Australia, New Zealand, Norway and South Africa, teacher education has recently moved into university settings. Concurrently, research performance funding measures have been introduced. Both changes have placed pressure on teacher educators to become “research active”. The literature indicates that teacher educators can increase and deepen their research productivity with support in ways that build on, rather than break down, their existing identities. The authors’ findings from interviews with research leaders in teacher education institutions indicate that cultivating communities of research practice can assist teacher educators to learn alongside more experienced colleagues, and become fully fledged researching academics.

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Kyriacou, C., Å. Hultgren and P. Stephens (1999), “Student teachers’ motivation to become a secondary school teacher in England and Norway”, Teacher Development, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 373-381.

This study explores the factors influencing candidate teachers’ choice to be secondary school teachers. Some 105 student teachers in Stavanger and 112 student teachers in York completed a questionnaire at the beginning of their postgraduate ITE programme. Twelve student teachers from each sample were then interviewed. Both groups reported being strongly influenced by enjoying the subject they teach, liking to work with children, and the fact that teaching would enable them to use their subject. Though this is broadly in line with other studies, there was tendency for more of the student teachers in the York sample, compared with the Stavanger sample, to place value on wanting to help children succeed and liking the activity of classroom teaching. Conversely, there was a tendency for more of the student teachers in the Stavanger sample, compared with the York sample, to place value on long holidays and social hours. These tendencies may in large part be accounted for by the fact that more of the Stavanger sample were already teaching, were older and had family commitments.

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Lillejord, S. and K. Børte (2016), “Partnership in teacher education – a research mapping”, European Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 39, No. 5, pp. 550-563.

This mapping of research on school-university partnerships in teacher education provides an overview of research in the field, identifying knowledge gaps and suggesting improvements in partnership models. Drawing on previous research, the authors describe partnerships as complex and resource-intensive cross-institutional infrastructures for knowledge sharing, with the ambition of enhancing the practice-relevance of teacher education, bridging theory and practice, and supporting mentoring and professional learning. How well partnerships function depends on how they are structured, how responsibilities are defined and how work is divided. The authors conclude that there are tensions at all levels, and argue for the need for competent academic leadership in the establishment, running and renewal of partnerships. A major challenge is how to establish and maintain productive learning relations between the partners. As some current models appear to be dysfunctional, there is an obvious need for innovative thinking in school-university partnerships in teacher education.

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Ludvigsen, S. et al. (2016), Northern Lights on PISA and TALIS, Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen.

In this publication, authors take a closer look at results from the PISA 2012 and TALIS 2013 studies in Nordic countries, which all have cultural similarities but differ in the organisation of their educational systems, which influences student performance. Chapter 4 addresses the relationship between teachers’ professional development, job satisfaction and self-efficacy in Nordic countries. The chapter presents two interesting results. First, all Nordic countries scored above the mid-point range on the teachers’ self-efficacy scale, which reflects teachers’ perception of their goal attainment in working with students. Second, although high self-efficacy and job satisfaction seem to be strongly related to mentoring activities, in Finland, teachers are the least involved in mentoring. Yet student performance is higher in Finland than other Nordic countries. This could imply that ITE programmes in Finland provide a better foundation for teaching and learning since they strongly emphasise knowledge about students’ learning, though whether this foundation is sufficient for further development is an open question. A general finding of this chapter is that induction to the teaching profession, and in-service and continuous training are fragmented in all countries (with some variations).

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Lund, A. and T. Eriksen (2016), “Teacher education as transformation: Some lessons learned from a Center for Excellence in Education”, Acta Didactica Norge, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 53-72.

This article presents some challenges in the current landscape of teacher education and teacher education research. The authors argue that the principles of transformative agency and double stimulation (Sannino, 2014; Vygotsky, 1978) offer a conceptual framework for studying changes in teacher education and can contribute to the understanding of how we can design future-oriented ITE programmes. The authors synthesise some common findings from a number of projects which attempt to reconfigure teacher education, transcend epistemological dichotomies and prepare teachers for a changing world. Methodologically, they use the conceptual framework mentioned above to conduct a post-hoc analysis of a series of formative interventions in teacher education. The common denominator is transcending traditional academic work in teacher education. The authors conclude that it is possible to reconfigure educational research and practice in teacher education and that case studies presented in the paper serve as empirical lenses and carriers of new understandings about how to transform teacher education in the knowledge society.

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Munthe, E., K. Svensen Malmo and M. Rogne (2011), “Teacher education reform and challenges in Norway”, Journal Education for Teaching, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 441-450.

In this paper, the authors briefly outline ongoing work to improve teacher education for grades 1–7 and 5–10 in Norway as part of recent reform efforts. They highlight three challenges associated with reform implementation. The first challenge concerns the recruitment of teachers in regional areas in Norway, especially those serving teachers in Sami Communities, and in different subject areas. The second challenge concerns expectations of teacher educators, who are expected to be more research-oriented, which is a separate discipline in itself, while at the same time adopt a profession orientation, which requires an interdisciplinary approach, an understanding of what goes on in classrooms and schools, and collaboration. The third challenge concerns the growing conceptualisation of teacher education as a continuum, which is raising awareness in Norway around coherence and progress in teacher education, pre-service and in-service. The authors conclude that the future success of reform will depend on implementation through innovation in local practices and through national and international discussions.

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Roness, D. (2011), “Still motivated? The motivation for teaching during the second year in the profession”, Teaching and Teacher Education, pp. 628-638.

This article presents the results from the third study in a longitudinal research project examining newly qualified teachers’ (NQTs) motivation for teaching and how they valued their teacher education. The findings indicate that teachers enjoy the profession 1.5 years after graduation. They are motivated both by working with their subject matter and by teaching. Retrospectively, NQTs criticise parts of the post-graduate certificate in education (PGCE) course, notably the disconnect between theory and practice. Although the teachers seem content in their profession, this study reveals a high rate of attrition, with 40% having left the profession, and a prevalent ambivalence about their professional future.

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Smith, K. (2016), “Partnerships in teacher education – Going beyond the rhetoric, with reference to the Norwegian context”,  Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 17-36.

In this paper, the concept of “partnership” is defined, in light of the expectation that teacher education is not perceived as the sole responsibility of higher education institutions and that universities are expected to work closely together with other partners. The authors describes the mutual benefits and challenges of partnerships with disciplines and institutions beyond ITE programmes, followed by partnerships with students. The last part of the paper discusses the partnership between teacher education and the practice field with examples from Norway. Three models illustrating such partnerships are described. The central argument of the paper is that partnerships in teacher education need to go beyond rhetoric.

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Thorsen, K. (2016), “Practice teachers’ role in teacher education – Individual practices across educational curricula”, Acta Didactica Norge, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 179-192.

The research project “Teachers’ Professional Qualifications” (TPQ) examines how school-based mentors perceive their roles and tasks in light of the new Teacher Education Reform in Norway. The study is based on a survey of 45 school-based mentors and in-depth interviews with 8 others. Results reveal that the role of school-based teachers as mentors is based on significant experience as school teachers, that general teacher activities are more focused, and that mentors seem to legitimate their role outside of the context of teacher education. The study also confirms international research in that there is a need to involve and co-operate with practice teachers to increase coherence in theoretical studies and school practice. A few years after the implementation of the reform, there is reason to question the degree to which the reform intentions have been realised. The discussion is related to the professionalisation of school-based mentor teachers and their role as co-operating participants in teacher education.

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Vestøl, J. (2016), “Design, integration, and quality. Teacher education from the perspective of ProTed, a Norwegian Centre of Excellence in Education”, Acta Didactica Norge, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 73-91.

Drawing on the developmental work of ProTed, a Norwegian Centre of Excellence in Education, this article contributes to the understanding of three concepts of central importance for the construction, development and evaluation of teacher education. Based on material from theory seminars, structured reports and other data from ProTed’s development projects, the article presents an understanding of the concepts design, integration and quality. Design is presented as an activity, a dynamic competence development where teaching is transformed into learning. Knowledge integration is understood as a core element of this design, and different forms and aspects of integration are explored. An understanding of quality evaluation is presented that emphasises performative and transformative aspects of the competence development that is generated through the design activity.

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3. Other reports on Norway

Hopfenbeck, T. et al. (2013), “Balancing trust and sccountability? The assessment for learning programme in Norway: a governing complex education systems case study”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 97, OECD Publishing, Paris.

This report explores the development of implementation strategies used to enhance the programme “Assessment for Learning – 2010-2014” in Norwegian schools. Norway’s educational governance is highly decentralised, with 428 municipalities and 19 counties responsible for implementing education activities, organising and operating school services, allocating resources and ensuring quality improvement and development of their schools. This case study is based on 56 interviews with 98 key actors and stakeholders in the Norwegian education system, as well as analysis of key policy and legal documents and a range of media articles. Key findings include the importance of clear communication between governance levels and a high degree of trust between stakeholders; the need for a clear understanding of programme goals, the role of learning networks between schools to aid the exchange of knowledge and provide peer support during the implementation process. Innovative forms of capacity building were of particular importance for the smaller municipalities, who reported being overextended by the continual stream of policy changes and struggling with prioritizing activities. The case study also provides a series of recommendations for improvement.

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Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training (2015), Leadership in Schools, What is Required and Expected of a Principal, Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research, Oslo.

This brochure describes the requirements of a school principal, based on the framework for school leadership in the National Leadership Education for School Principals in Norway. This framework is the fruit of an extensive consultation process involving key players and stakeholders in the education sector. It describes five main aspects of a principal’s role: ensuring good students’ learning processes; ensuring that the school’s social mandate is implemented; that the school runs well as an organisation; that the school is responsive and fit for purpose and context at all times; and clarity and responsibility for leadership roles and capacity to lead.

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Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research (2015), The School of the Future. Renewal of Subjects and Competences, Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research, Oslo.

The report outlines 10 propositions for the next decade based on both policy development and its implementation in schools: 1) student engagement will continue to be a strong determining factor in relation to individual student achievement and overall school performance; 2) bullying behaviour will continue to be an area where teachers will have to be vigilant; 3) the provision of appropriate support for students with special needs and meeting the aspirations of their parents will continue to challenge schools and education systems; 4) local and global issues will be incorporated into the content of the curriculum of schools; 5) the human resources units of education systems will adjust their policies to better match the preferences of teachers for work-life balance; 6) some current technology tools will become mainstream, some that are popular today will soon become obsolete and new technologies will emerge; 7) the physical environments of schools will develop to enable more flexible uses of community resources; 8) the similarities between government schools and non-government schools will become more apparent than their differences; 9) a number of the programmes and services provided by individual schools will be steered by parents as schools are increasingly seen as social networking sites; 10) schools’ duty of care to children will increase.

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Nusche, D. et al. (2011), OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Norway 2011,  OECD Publishing, Paris.

This report is one of a series of reports on the OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes. It provides an independent analysis from an international perspective of major issues facing the evaluation and assessment framework in education along with current policy initiatives and possible future approaches in Norway along 5 main axes: The evaluation and assessment framework; student assessment; teacher appraisal; school evaluation; and education system evaluation. In order to further strengthen Norway’s approach to evaluation and assessment following the establishment of the national quality assessment system (NKVS) by the Norwegian authorities in 2004, the report cites 3 priorities for Norway, which are to clarify learning goals and quality criteria to guide assessment and evaluation; complete the evaluation and assessment framework and make it coherent; and further strengthen competencies for evaluation and assessment among teachers, school leaders and school owners.

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OECD (2002), Reviews of National Policies for Education: Lifelong Learning in Norway,  OECD Publishing, Paris.

This report is the fruit of an OECD policy review of lifelong learning in Norway. It is divided into two parts. The first part, prepared by the Norwegian authorities, describes Norway’s bold vision of lifelong learning for the development of the knowledge society and the national context in which lifelong learning is being implemented. It then provides an overview of the different arenas within which lifelong learning occurs and the challenges that must be met; presents evidence on demand for, participation in, and provision of learning opportunities; and summarises measures to facilitate lifelong learning. The second part of the report, the OECD Examiners’ Report, was prepared by the OECD Review team. It reviews the social, economic, political, and institutional context within which Norway has articulated its vision of lifelong learning (Chapter 2); it examines the goals and objectives of lifelong learning in Norway, who it is for, and who it involves (Chapter 3); examines unfinished aspects of the lifelong learning agenda in Norway, with a focus on integration of learning and working life (Chapter 4); it addresses the issue of implementation of lifelong learning across multiple public policy areas and in co-operation with the social partners (Chapter 5); and it discusses overriding principles to guide formulation and implementation of further policies (Chapter 6). The report concludes that achieving the goal of lifelong learning is likely given Norway’s history of reform, co-operation between bodies, and high educational standards and outcomes.

OECD (2015), “Norway”, in Education Policy Outlook 2015: Making Reform Happen, OECD Publishing, Paris.

This policy profile on education in Norway is part of the OECD Education Policy Outlook series, which presents a comparative analysis of education policies and reforms across OECD countries. Each profile reviews the current context and situation of a country’s education system and examines its challenges and policy responses, according to six policy levers that support improvement. The profile first presents Norway’s educational context, with respect to its students, institutions, and governance and funding, key policy issues and policy responses. The report then outlines 1) Norway’s favourable system-level policies and efforts that address student needs (equity and quality); 2) how Norway engages students to prevent dropout (preparing students for the future); 3) how it develops the conditions for school leaders and teachers to succeed (school improvement); 4) how evaluation and assessment can be used to greatest and fullest effect to improve student outcomes; 5) the nature of Norway’s decentralised system with autonomous municipalities (governance) and 6) its large public investment in education (funding). The policy profile also includes a map of the education system, key statistics and indicators, and references for Norway.

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OECD (2016), “Norway”, in Education at a Glance 2017: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris.

This “Country note” was prepared for Norway for the release of results from the 2017 edition of the annual OECD publication on statistics and indicators, Education at a Glance. It focuses on four major topics: access to early childhood education, sustainable funding for high-quality education, impact of tertiary education on the labour market, and teachers’ working conditions. Key results indicate that Norway has achieved very high enrolment rates in early childhood education with 95% of three-year-olds being enrolled against an OECD average of 71%, with the whole offer being public. Education in Norway is primarily funded at the local level (94%), with the highest proportion of all OECD countries with available data (22%). Tertiary educated adults enjoy above average employment rates relative to trends in the OECD. The statutory starting salaries for teachers in Norway exceed OECD average across all levels of education but teachers’ reported salaries are significantly lower than those of other full-time tertiary educated workers. From primary to tertiary levels of education, the ratio of students to teaching staff in public institutions remains constant at 10:1; no other country maintains such a low ratio across all levels.

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Skaalvik, E. and S. Skaalvik (2016), “Teacher stress and teacher self-efficacy as predictors of engagement, emotional exhaustion, and motivation to leave the teaching profession”, Creative Education, Vol. 7, No. 13, pp. 1785-1799.

The purpose of this study is to explore how 7 “potentially stressful” school context variables predict senior high school teachers’ experiences of teacher self-efficacy, emotional stress, emotional exhaustion, engagement in teaching, and motivation to leave the teaching profession in Norway. A total of 523 Norwegian teachers in upper secondary education participated in the study. Four of the potential stressors were significantly but differently related to self-efficacy and emotional stress and indirectly to emotional exhaustion, engagement, and motivation to leave the profession. The study shows that different potential stressors predict emotional exhaustion, engagement, and motivation through different psychological processes. SEM-analysis indicated two main routes to teachers’ motivation to leave the profession: 1) one route from time pressure via emotional stress and exhaustion to motivation to quit and 2) another route from lack of supervisory support and trust, low student motivation and value conflicts via lower self-efficacy and lower engagement to motivation to quit.

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Tømte, C., E. Hovdhaugen and N. Solum (2009), ICT in Initial Teacher Training. Norway Country Report, OECD Publishing, Brussels.

Based on a survey of 82 teacher educators, 87 student teachers and 29 mentor teachers in 3 teacher education insitutions in Norway – Oslo University College, Sør-Trøndelag University College and Vestfold University College – this report describes how student teachers in Norway integrate technology in their teaching from the perspective of teacher trainers, student teachers and mentor teachers. The focus is on student teachers’ own use of ICT, their exposure to ICT through their formal training at a university college and their exposure to ICT during their in-school training at partner schools. The authors conclude that although Norway has the national and institutional framework in place to integrate ICT in initial teacher training, ideas have not yet reached the individual or practice level. The authors conclude that this will probably require more time and possibly more effort from the part of the teacher training institutions.

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