1. National guidelines and legislation on ITP

Dutch Association for Teacher Educators (VELON) (2012), Professional Standard for Teacher Educators (Appendix)

This document describes the Professional Standards for Teacher Educators, developed by the Dutch Association for Teacher Educators (VELON). VELON is an association involved in (both pre- and in-service) teacher education in the Netherlands, which aims to improve professional quality of teacher educators. The fundamental principles of a teacher educator and the four competency areas are described – competent in the field of educational psychology, in supervising professional learning, in organisation and management, and developmentally – in addition to the behaviours and actions characterising each of the competency areas, with examples and leading questions to feed into the knowledge base of teacher educators developed by VELON.

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Dutch Parliament (2006, revised 2015), Wet op de beroepen in het onderwijs (Wet BIO) [Professionals in Education Act] (in Dutch)

 

This Act describes the seven required competencies of educational staff (teachers, assisting staff members, and school managers) in primary, secondary and senior secondary vocational education in the Netherlands: interpersonal, pedagogical, subject knowledge didactics, organisational, collaboration with colleagues, collaboration with the working environment, reflection and professional development. In 2014, a revision of teacher requirements was proposed by the National Teacher Body “Onderwijscoöperatie”. These requirements were approved by the Ministry of Education in 2015, effective from August 2017. The revision categorises competencies into subject content requirements, didactical requirements and pedagogical requirements. It also establishes requirements for levels of education, for example a Bachelor level requirements for teachers in primary education, teachers in secondary education and senior secondary vocational education, and Master’s level requirements for teachers in upper secondary education.

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2. Policy and research on ITP

Bourgonje, P. and R. Tromp (2011), Quality Educators: an International Study of Teacher Competences and Standards, Education International, Oxfam Novib

This study interviews teachers and other stakeholders in eight countries about the development and implementation of quality standards for primary school teachers, including the Netherlands’ Professionals in Education Act (2005). The authors also review the literature on competence-based teacher education and provide a conceptual framework and an evidence base for the use of competence profiles to enable quality teaching. Findings of the study provide input to Education International and Oxfam’s Quality Educators for All project. The report concludes with a series of recommendations, for example, “competence profiles” should be developed in co-operation with all involved stakeholders; definitions of competences should be linked to a common understanding of what constitutes quality teaching, and firmly linked to teachers’ daily classroom practice; and implementation should be school-wide, with evaluation as a central part.

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Brouwer, P. et al. (2016), Country Background Report. OECD Initial Teacher Preparation Study. The Netherlands, ecbo, The Hague.

This is a self-evaluation report providing background information for the team of experts visiting the Netherlands as part of the OECD Initial Teacher Preparation study. It outlines issues and challenges along the six stages of the OECD Teacher Education pathway: attracting candidates into initial teacher education (ITE), selection into ITE programmes, what teacher candidates need to know and do, ensuring quality delivery of ITE programmes, teacher certification and hiring, and support for new teachers.

Crasborn, F. and P. Hennissen (2014), “Training mentor teachers for effective supervision: The impact of the SMART programme”, in Pedagogical Field Experiences in Teacher Education. Theoretical Foundations, Programmes, Processes, and Effects, Waxmann Verlag, Munster

 

This chapter discusses the need for mentor teacher preparation and explains the focus, content, and pedagogy underlying a training programme for mentor teachers in the Netherlands, the Supervision Skills for Mentor Teachers to Activate Reflection in Teachers (SMART). Findings are also presented from several studies which assess mentor teachers’ supervisory roles and use of supervisory skills in mentoring dialogues, before and after the SMART programme. Finally, implications and perspectives for mentor teacher development and preparation are discussed. Results indicated that during the programme, teacher educators acquired a frame of reference and a professional language with which they can give more direction to their own supervisory behaviour; and after participating in the SMART programme, mentor teachers were aware of their newly acquired supervisory skills and were trying to put them consciously into practice.

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Kessels, C. (2010), The Influence of Induction Programs on Beginning Teachers’ Well-Being and Professional Development, ICLON, Leiden University Graduate School of Teaching.

Using interviews and a large-scale survey, this thesis explores the influence of induction programs on beginning teachers’ well-being and professional development, and the essential characteristics of an induction programme. Findings indicate that new teachers in the Netherlands generally experience little to moderate influence of the induction programme on their professional development. Moreover, the influence on professional development strongly is strongly dependent on the characteristics of the induction programme. The author attributes the generally low to moderate influence experienced on professional development to the fact that most induction programs do not contain (all of) the characteristics that are perceived as being essential to the professional development of beginning teachers.

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Koenraad, T. and A. Van Der Hoeff (2013), “National competence standards for initial teacher education: A result of collaboration by faculties of education in the Netherlands”, Journal of Teacher Education and Educators, Vol. 2/2, pp. 167-194.

This paper describes the development of an ICT knowledge base by the Dutch General Consultative Body of Directors of the Faculties of Education (ADEF), using TPACK (Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge) as a conceptual model for the development of these ICT competences. The model captures some of the essential qualities of knowledge required by teachers for integrating technology in their teaching, while addressing the complex, multi-dimensional and situated nature of the teacher profession. This paper presents the 2009 version of this national ICT knowledge base for student teachers and describes supporting measures, instruments and challenges for its implementation. Developments for the 2013 update are discussed: the process of teacher education curriculum innovation with personal experiences in running pilots about inquiry based learning, the use of interactive whiteboards and 3D virtual worlds.

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Koster, B. and J. Dengerink (2001), “Towards a professional standard for Dutch teacher educators”, European Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 24/3, pp. 343-354.

In light of the Professional Standards for Teacher Educators first developed by the Dutch Association of Teacher Educators (VELON) in 1997, the authors trace the development of the Standards (i.e. the knowledge and skills Dutch teacher educators should have) and the dilemmas faced, for example how specific should the standard be, should the key tasks of a teacher educator cover initial teacher education and/or professional learning, etc. The international context of standard development for teacher educators is briefly presented (Belgium, Europe and the United States), followed by ruminations on plans for the future: “So far, we have developed one single standard for all teacher educators in the Netherlands, whether working within schools as ‘school-based teacher educators’ or as teacher educators working in teacher education institutes and teaching a specific subject like educational theory or mathematics. We have developed a general set of competencies with only a limited differentiation regarding the context in which people work: initial teacher education, in-service teacher education and research into teacher education and teaching. The important questions are: is there a difference because the field the student teachers are preparing for is different, i.e. primary education or upper secondary education; and is it necessary to formulate subject-specific competencies, i.e. competencies specific for teacher educators for example in physics or foreign languages?”.

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OECD (2016), “Chapter 5. Enhancing teacher professional development in the Netherlands” In Netherlands 2016: Foundations for the Future, Reviews of National Policies for Education, OECD Publishing, Paris.

 

This report draws on international experience to look at ways in which the strong Dutch school system might go further still on the path to excellence. The report therefore proposes an incremental approach to reform, building on strengths while responding to some emerging challenges. OECD advocates strengthening the quality of early childhood education and care in the Netherlands, revisiting policies related to early tracking with more objective testing and track decisions, and enhancing the permeability of the system. In addition, it suggests developing the professionalism of teachers and school leaders through enhanced collective learning and working, while at the same time strengthening accountability and capacity in school boards. Chapter 5 explores the teaching skills of Dutch teachers, their initial education and professional development opportunities, as well as the potential obstacles to participation. It highlights the importance of a life cycle approach to teachers’ professional development that is underpinned by a diversified career structure, and the promotion of collaborative working and learning among other teachers and school leaders.

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Quality Assurance Netherlands Universities (QANU) (2010), QANU Research Review: Teacher Training Institutes, Quality Assurance Netherlands Universities (QANU), Utrecht.

This report describes an independent external quality assessment of research conducted in 2003-09 in education faculties in five universities in the Netherlands: Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Utrecht University, University of Amsterdam, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and Leiden University. Conducted using the Standard Evaluation Protocol 2003-2009 for Public Research Organisations (SEP), the report presents for each university its leadership, mission and goals, strategy and policies, resources, funding policies, facilities, academic relevance, societal relevance and balance of strengths and weaknesses. Research in each university programme is then briefly described and evaluated according to the criteria of quality, productivity, relevance and viability. The report concludes that, in general, research on teaching and learning in these universities is steadily growing in international productivity, impact and visibility. The main issue is now how changes in organisational structure will support this positive trend, both at the local and national level.

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Snoek, M. and E. Moens (2011), “The impact of teacher research on teacher learning in academic training schools in the Netherlands”, Professional Development in Education, Vol. 37/5, pp. 817-835.

 

As part of a government-initiated programme to establish 16 academic training schools, defined as “schools that combines its training function with a component consisting of highly practice-oriented research and innovation”, this paper describes the case of the 3 secondary schools within the Amsterdam Academic Training School, which decided to support teachers in their schools to engage in practice-based research. The study focused on the research question “What does teachers’ research contribute to individual and collective learning within the school?”. The research design addressed individual learning, collaborative learning on the level of the team of teacher researchers, and organisational learning by the school as a whole. Drawing on interviews of teacher educators, the authors describe a number of preconditions with regard to the culture and structure in the school required for an academic training school to be successful. They conclude that involvement in these schools can result in better learning outcomes, development of a broader sense of professionalism among the teacher researchers, development of closely-knit innovation teams in the school, and bridging the ‘us and them’ relations between teachers and management in the school.

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Ten Brummelhuis, A. et al. (2010), ICT in Initial Teacher Training: The Netherlands. Country Report, OECD Publishing, Paris.

This country report was prepared by the Dutch authorities as part of the OECD project on OECD New Millennium Learners project on “ICT in Initial Teacher Training (ITE)”. It first presents the Dutch education system and its policies relating to ICT and ICT in initial teacher education. It then presents the results of an in-depth on-line survey of management, teacher educators, teacher candidates and mentor teachers on the use of ICT in ITE. The paper includes two case studies on INHolland School of Education, Rotterdam and Hogeschool Edith Stein in Hengelo, which explore how educational studies prepare teachers for their profession and the role ICT plays in this. The report identifies enablers (e.g. access to adequate reliable ICTs for teacher educators and teacher candidates; a shared policy vision and focus on the use of ICT in education) and obstacles (e.g. not all teachers use the facilities of ICT and digital environments; quality and quantity of facilities could be improved) to the use of ICT in ITE. It concludes with a summary of key messages related to the widespread positive attitude towards the use of ICT; the need for more self-managed guidance; and good organisation of access, maintenance and technical support.

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Van Velzen, C. and M. Volman (2008), “School-based teacher educators in the Netherlands and the opportunities of the school as a learning place”, Second Congress of the International Society for Cultural and Activity Research Conference (ISCAR), San Diego, 8-13 September 2008.

 

This article explores how teacher educators in the school shape a learning environment which promotes the workplace learning of teacher candidates. The authors present a theoretical framework called the Cognitive Apprenticeship Model based on the activity triangle (the rules, the division of labour and the community of practice), which positions school-based teacher educators in the school activity system. The authors then present the methods and results of a case study on how four school-based teacher educators fulfil their role as teacher educators in two partnership schools of the Onderwijscentrum VU in Amsterdam. The paper concludes that despite the small sample size, the case study does provide insight into the way teachers shape their role of teacher educator, how they use their own experiences as a teacher and thereby demonstrate to student teachers what is important in their development as a teacher.

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3. Other reports on the Netherlands

Meesters, M. (2003), Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers. Country Background Report for The Netherlands, OECD Publishing, Paris.

 

This document is part of a reporting exercise undertaken by the Netherlands as part of the OECD study “Teachers Matter: Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers” conducted between 2002 and 2004. The report describes teacher policy in the Netherlands and the status of teachers; selection into ITE, course content, recruitment and hiring, and salary; and pre- and in-service teacher training. It concludes by describing features and themes of national teacher policy in the Netherlands. The report highlights how surpluses of teachers in primary and secondary education during the last decade have been replaced by serious shortages. Several measures have been taken to attract, develop and retain competent teachers. These measures all fit into a broader education policy, aimed at enhancing the quality of education, promoting equal opportunities and making education more effective. Schools and their staff play an important role in achieving these goals. The overall tendency has been towards devolving certain responsibilities from the level of central government to the level of education organisations.

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Nusche, D. et al. (2014), OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Netherlands 2014, OECD Publishing, Paris.

 

This report is one of a series of reports on the OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes. It provides an independent analysis from an international perspective of major issues facing the evaluation and assessment framework in education along with current policy initiatives and possible future approaches in the Netherlands along 5 main axes: the evaluation and assessment framework; student assessment; teacher appraisal; school evaluation; and education system evaluation. Compared internationally, the Dutch education system has made progress on many fronts and has a high standing on international assessments. Yet, there is a general appreciation that the system must continue to improve and strive to reach the next level. The OECD recommended embedding the evaluation and assessment framework within broader learning goals; integrating teacher appraisal into the evaluation and assessment framework; continuing to adapt school evaluation to emerging needs; and strengthening evaluation and assessment competencies across the education system.

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OECD (2015), “Netherlands”, in Education Policy Outlook 2015: Making Reforms Happen, OECD Publishing, Paris.

 

This policy profile on education in the Netherlands is part of the OECD Education Policy Outlook series, which presents comparative analysis of education policies and reforms across OECD countries. This section on the Netherlands describes the challenges faced by the country and the recent policy responses to these challenges: growing student diversity; a priority to attract, train and retain quality teachers; a need to strengthen the steering capacity and responsibility of school boards so that they can address student needs consistently. Better use of results from school, teacher and student assessments can also support school improvement and student learning.

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OECD (2016), “Country note. Education at a Glance 2016: OECD Indicators, Netherlands”, OECD Publishing, Paris.

 

This “Country note” was prepared for the Netherlands for the release of results from the 2016 edition of the annual OECD publication on statistics and indicators, Education at a Glance. Key results indicate that in the Netherlands, women are less likely to be employed than men and earn less than men at all levels of educational attainment. Tertiary attainment has steadily grown and is now equivalent to the OECD average (35% in 2015), due to large increases in attainment among the younger generations. The graduation rate from vocational programmes at the upper secondary level (77%) was considerably higher than the OECD average (46%) in 2014 and has grown at a faster rate than most OECD countries. Public expenditure on education has been increasing, both as a share of the nation’s wealth and as a percentage of total public spending. Teachers’ salaries in the Netherlands are above the OECD average at all stages of their career but they still lag behind those of workers with a tertiary qualification. Net teaching time in primary and upper secondary education is relatively high, compared to the OECD average.

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